For a full list of publications, please visit Google Scholar.


Bryant, E.M., Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (in press). The relationship between salivary Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and cortisol reactivity and psychological outcomes prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports.

Bae, S.E. & Richardson, R. (in press).  Behavioral Tagging in the Developing Animal. To appear in "Synaptic Tagging and Capture, Second Edition", co-edited by Sreedharan Sajikumar and Ted Abel.   

Di Polito, N., Stylianakis, A.A., Richardson, R. & Baker, K.D. (2023). Real-World Intake of Dietary Sugars Is Associated with Reduced Cortisol Reactivity Following an Acute Physiological Stressor.  Nutrients, 15, 209.


Bryant, E.M., Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2022). The Association Between Salivary FGF2 and Physiological and Psychological Components of the Human Stress Response. Chronic Stress, 6, 24705470221114787.

Stylianakis, A.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2022). Pharmacological enhancement of extinction retention in non-stressed adolescent rats but not those exposed to chronic corticosterone.  Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16, 822709.

Harmon-Jones, S.K., & Richardson, R. (2022). Adults Who are More Anxious and Were Anxiously Attached as Children Report Later First Memories. British Journal of Psychology, 113, 455-478.

Maheu, M.E., Sharma, S., King, G., Maddox, S.A., Wingo, A., Lori, A., Michopoulos, V., Richardson, R., & Ressler, K.J. (2022). Amygdala DCX and blood Cdk14 are implicated as cross-species indicators of individual differences in fear, extinction, and resilience to trauma exposure. Molecular Psychiatry, 27, 956-966.


Pestana, J. E., McCutcheon, T.B., Harmon-Jones, S.K., Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2021). Maternal experience does not predict fear extinction and anxiety-like behaviour in primiparous rats post-weaning. Frontiers Global Womens Health, 98.

Bisby, M.A., Stylianakis, A.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2021). Fear extinction learning and retention during adolescence in rats and mice: a systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 131, 1264-1274.

Harmon-Jones, S.K. & Richardson, R. (2021). Maternal care, infant fear memory retention, and the moderating role of variations in separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Developmental Psychobiology, 63, e22177.

Harmon-Jones, S.K., Graham, B.M., King, G., & Richardson, R. (2021). It’s all about who you know: Memory retention of a rat’s cagemates during infancy negatively predicts adulthood hippocampal FGF2 . Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 182, 107448.

Richardson, R., Bowers, J., Callaghan, B.L., & Baker, K.D. (2021). Does maternal separation accelerate maturation of perineuronal nets and parvalbumin-containing inhibitory interneurons in male and female rats? Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 47, 100905.


Harmon-Jones, S.K., Cowan, C.S.M., Shnier, N., Richardson, R. (2020) Is good memory always a good thing? An early offset of infantile amnesia predicts anxiety-like behavior throughout development in rats. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 135, 103763.

Bisby, M.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2020). Deficits in opioid receptor-mediated prediction error contribute to impaired fear extinction during adolescence. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 133, 103713.

Zimmermann, K.S., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2020). Esketamine as a treatment for paediatric depression: questions of safety and efficacy. The Lancet: Psychiatry, 7, 827-829.

Bisby, M.A., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2020). Developmental differences in the effects of CB1/2R agonist WIN55212-2 on extinction of learned fear. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 99, 109834.


Stylianakis, A.A., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2019). Timing is everything: Developmental differences in the effect of chronic corticosterone exposure on extinction retention. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133, 467-477.

Bae, S.E. & Richardson, R. (2019). Brief isolation during infancy enhances the formation of long-term memories. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133, 437-447.  

Cowan, C.S.M. & Richardson, R. (2019). Early-life stress leads to sex-dependent changes in pubertal timing in rats that are reversed by a probiotic formulation. Developmental Psychobiology, 61, 679-687. 

In this video, Caitlin describes her work examining the effects of early life stress, puberty onset, and probiotics (filmed for ISDP).

Zimmermann, K.S., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2019). Maturational changes in prefrontal and amygdala circuits in adolescence: implications for understanding fear inhibition during a vulnerable period of development. Brain Sciences, 9, 65.

Cowan, C.S.M., Stylianakis, A.A., & Richardson, R. (2019). Early-life stress, microbiota, and brain development: Probiotics reverse the effects of maternal separation on neural circuits underpinning fear expression and extinction in infant rats. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 37, 100627.    

Elliott, N. D. & Richardson,R. (2019). The effects of early life stress on context fear generalization in adult rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 133, 50-58.    

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2019). Fibroblast growth factor-2 enhancement of extinction recall depends on the success of within-session extinction training in rats: a re-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 236, 227-238.    

King, G., Baker, K.D., Bisby, M.A, Chan, D. Cowan, C.S.M., Stylianakis, A.A., Zimmermann, K.S., & Richardson, R. (2019). A Precision Medicine Approach to Pharmacological Adjuncts to Extinction: A Call to Broaden Research. Psychopharmacology, 236, 143-162.


Bae, S. E. & Richardson, R. (2018). Behavioral tagging in infant rats. Learning & Memory, 25, 580-586. 

Graham, B.M., Dong, V., & Richardson, R. (2018). The impact of chronic fluoxetine on conditioned fear expression and hippocampal FGF2 in rats: short- and long-term effects. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 155, 344-350.   

Baker, K.D., McNally, G.P., & Richardson, R. (2018). D-Cycloserine facilitates fear extinction in adolescent rats and differentially affects medial and lateral prefrontal cortex activation. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 86, 262-269.   

Stylianakis, A.A., Harmon-Jones, S.K., Richardson, R., & Baker, K.D. (2018). Differences in the persistence of spatial memory deficits induced by a chronic stressor in adolescents compared to juveniles. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 805-813.   

King, G., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2018). Effects of D-Cycloserine on Individual Differences in Relapse of Fear. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 84, 115-124.   

Cowan, C.S.M. & Richardson, R. (2018). A brief guide to studying fear in developing rodents: Important considerations and common pitfalls. Current Protocols in Neuroscience, 83, e44.   

King, G., Graham, B.M., & Richardson, R. (2018). Individual Differences in Fear Relapse. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 100, 37-43.   

Kan, J.M. & Richardson, R. (2018). Ghosts of mother’s past: Previous maternal stress leads to altered maternal behavior following a subsequent pregnancy in rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 60, 278-291.   

Bisby, M.A., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2018). Elucidating the mechanisms of fear extinction in developing animals: A special case of NMDA receptor-independent extinction in adolescent rats. Learning & Memory, 25, 158-164 


Graham, B.M., Zagic, D., &, Richardson, R. (2017). Low Endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Levels Are Associated With Heightened Conditioned Fear Expression in Rats and Humans. Biological Psychiatry, 82, 601-607. 

Newall, C., Watson, T., Grant, K.-A., & Richardson, R. (2017). The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in diminishing children’s fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 42-49. 

Baker, K.D., Gray, A.R., & Richardson, R. (2017). The development of perineuronal nets around parvalbumin GABAergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 131, 289-303. 

Baker, K.D. & Richardson, R. (2017). Pharmacological evidence that a failure to recruit NMDA receptors contributes to impaired fear extinction retention in adolescent rats. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 143, 18-26. 

King, G., Scott, E., Graham, B., & Richardson, R. (2017). Individual differences in fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Learning & Memory, 24, 182-190.


Walters, E. Richardson, R., & Graham, B.M. (2016). Individual differences in conditioned fear expression are associated with enduring differences in endogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and hippocampal-mediated memory performance. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 134, 248-255.

Kan, J.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2016). A mother’s past can predict her offspring’s future: Previous maternal separation leads to the early emergence of adult-like fear behavior in subsequent male infant rat offspring. Behavioral Neuroscience, 130, 511-520.

Baker, K.D., Bisby, M.A., & Richardson, R. (2016). Impaired Fear Extinction in Adolescent Rodents: Behavioural and Neural Analyses. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 70, 59-73

Callaghan, B.L.*, Cowan, C.S.M.*, & Richardson, R. (2016). Treating generational stress: Effect of paternal stress on offspring memory and extinction development is rescued by probiotic treatment. Psychological Science, 27, 1171-1180 (*= equal first authors).

Cowan, C.S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Richardson, R. (2016). The Effects of a Probiotic Formulation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. helveticus) on Developmental Trajectories of Emotional Learning in Stressed Infant Rats. Translational Psychiatry, e823.

Cowan, C., Callaghan, B.L., Kan, J., & Richardson, R. (2016). The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: Potential mechanisms and hope for intervention. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 15, 155-168.

Richardson, R., Cowan, C. S.M., Callaghan, B.L., & Kan, J.M. (2016). Effects of Early-Life Stress on Fear Memory in the Developing Rat. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 7, 15-20.

Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2016). Individual differences in the expression of conditioned fear are associated with endogenous fibroblast growth factor 2. Learning & Memory, 23, 42-45.

Furlong, T.M., Richardson, R., & McNally, G.P. (2016). Habituation and extinction of fear recruit overlapping forebrain structures. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 128, 7-16.


Graham, B.M. & Richardson, R. (2015). Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 as a New Approach to Fighting Fear. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 959-960. 

Baker, K.D. & Richardson, R. (2015). Forming competing fear learning and extinction memories in adolescence makes fear difficult to inhibit. Learning & Memory, 22, 537-543. 

Den, M.L., Graham, B.M., Newall, C., & Richardson, R. (2015). Teens that fear screams: A comparison of fear conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in adolescents and adults. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 818-832. 

Byrne, S.P., Rapee, R.M., Richardson, R., Mahli, G.S., Jones, M., & Hudson, J.L. (2015). D-Cycloserine Enhances Generalization of Fear Extinction in Children. Depression & Anxiety, 32, 408-414. 

Chan, D., Baker, K.D., & Richardson, R. (2015). Relearning a context-shock association after forgetting is an NMDAr-independent process. Physiology & Behavior, 148, 29-35. 

Bridget L. Callaghan & Rick Richardson (2015). The development of fear and its inhibition: Knowledge gained from preclinical models (PP. 83-94). In “Primer on Anxiety Disorders”, D. Pine, K. Ressler, B. Rothbaum, & A. Muskin (Eds). Oxford University Press.


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